I was reminded of this recently, as an agnostic asked if this was about the Eucharist. She's right, it is. It's also a complete refutation that there are no further sacrifices in the New Covenant, because God Himself says that there will be "from the rising to the setting of the sun," which is to say, globally, "in every place."
I was aware that this was a prophesy which the Church Fathers were fond of for proving the Eucharist, and that the Mass was a Sacrifice, but I couldn't remember exact quotes. Fortunately, Catholic Answers came through, and mentions 3 early Christian sources which rely on this specific verse:
- The Didache (70 A.D.)
- Justin Martyr (A.D. 155)
- Irenaeus (A.D. 189)